When creating a standby database, there are a number of important factors to take into account:
- Operating systems should match.
- Oracle database software version and patch level should match.
- Dbvisit Standby software installed on both primary and standby must match.
Another component to keep in mind is the Language settings being used. Again the core requirement for a standby (DR) site is that it should match the primary. So when you are using a Primary system using German settings with default currency set to Euro, you need to make sure that the standby server settings match. Oracle NLS settings can get complex. It is recommended that you review the relevant Oracle Documentation. For more details please see the following Oracle Support Notes:
- The Correct NLS_LANG in a Microsoft Windows Environment (Doc ID 179133.1)
- The Correct NLS_LANG Setting in Unix Environments (Doc ID 264157.1)
- Changing Or Choosing the Database Character Set ( NLS_CHARACTERSET ) (Doc ID 225912.1)
Below is an example of what might happen when the wrong settings are in place. In this case the primary database server has the following environment settings with regards to NLS parameters:
NLS_DATE_FORMAT=dd/mm/yyyy:hh24:mi:ss NLS_LANG=dutch_the netherlands.AL32UTF8
This example, from a basic test system, has the following database parameters:
audit_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/QA1/adump' compatible='220.127.116.11.0' control_files='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/QA1/control01.ctl' db_block_size=8192 db_domain='' db_name='QA1' db_recovery_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area' db_recovery_file_dest_size=3221225472 diagnostic_dest='/u01/app/oracle' dispatchers='(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=QA1XDB)' log_archive_format='%t_%s_%r.dbf' nls_calendar='GREGORIAN' nls_comp='BINARY' nls_currency='€' nls_date_format='YYYY-MM-DD:HH24:MI:SS' nls_date_language='DUTCH' nls_dual_currency='€' nls_iso_currency='THE NETHERLANDS' nls_language='DUTCH' nls_numeric_characters=',.' nls_sort='DUTCH' nls_territory='THE NETHERLANDS' nls_time_format='HH24:MI:SSXFF' nls_time_tz_format='HH24:MI:SSXFF TZR' nls_timestamp_format='DD-MM-RR HH24:MI:SSXFF' nls_timestamp_tz_format='DD-MM-RR HH24:MI:SSXFF TZR' open_cursors=300 pga_aggregate_target=52428800 processes=300 remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE' sga_max_size=419430400 sga_target=419430400 undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'
But when creating a standby database using the same parameters as above, the following error is encountered:
SQL> startup nomount pfile='/usr/dbvisit/standby/tmp/dbv_QA1_csd_init.ora' LRM-00123: invalid character 130 found in the input file ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
Further investigation found that the
NLS_LANG setting on the standby server was not set. Once it was updated to match the primary server the following successful outcome resulted:
oracle@kiwi102[/usr/dbvisit/standby/tmp]: env|grep LANG LANG=en_NZ.UTF-8 oracle@kiwi102[/usr/dbvisit/standby/tmp]: env|grep NLS NLS_DATE_FORMAT=dd/mm/yyyy:hh24:mi:ss oracle@kiwi102[/usr/dbvisit/standby/tmp]: export NLS_LANG="dutch_the netherlands.AL32UTF8" oracle@kiwi102[/usr/dbvisit/standby/tmp]: sqlplus /nolog SQL*Plus: Release 18.104.22.168.0 Production on Di Okt 20 21:49:31 2015 Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle. All rights reserved. SQL> connect / as sysdba Connected to an idle instance. SQL> startup nomount pfile='/usr/dbvisit/standby/tmp/dbv_QA1_csd_init.ora' ORACLE instance started. Total System Global Area 419430400 bytes Fixed Size 2925120 bytes Variable Size 268438976 bytes Database Buffers 142606336 bytes Redo Buffers 5459968 bytes SQL>
The above is purely an example to show that if you have different settings between a primary and standby, you might get some unexpected results. It is important to make sure the primary and standby servers match as closely as possible.